Aiping Xiong

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Assistant Professor
College of Information Sciences and Technology
Penn State University
Office: E373
Phone: (814)-865-2370
Email: axx29 @
Google scholar

To prospective graduate students:

I am currently recruiting graduate students for Fall 2021. Any students sharing the similar academic interests and with a solid background in cognitive psychology/human factors/usable security and privacy, are encouragegd to apply. Please note that applications are due on December 15th, 2020.
Prospective Students: I welcome inquireies if you have any questions or are interested in my research areas.

About me

I'm an Assistant Professor in the College of Information Sciences and Technology, Penn State University - University Park.
Prior to Penn State, I obtained my Ph.D. in Psychological Sciences and MS degree in Industrial Engineering:Human Factors from Purdue University, West Lafayette. My advisor is Professor Robert W. Proctor.


My primary research interests lie in the interdisciplinary field of decision making and cybersecruity and privacy. I design and conduct online and laboratory human subject experiments to obtain quantitative and qualitative measures of human performance in various cybersecurity and privacy settings.
My research spans cognitive psychology, human factors, and cybersecurity and privacy.


  • 3/2021: One demo paper accepted by WSDM 2021
  • 8/2020: One paper accepted by QJEP
  • 5/2020: One extended abstract accepted by HFES 2020
  • 3/2020: One paper accepted by IEEE S&P 2020
  • 3/2020: One paper accepted by Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics
  • 2/2020: One extended abstract accepted by CHI 2020
  • 1/2020: Our book chapter on Big Data was published in the book of Big Data in Psychological Research
  • 9/2019: Our book chapter on Phishing was published in the book of Human Performance in Automated and Autonomous Systems
  • 6/2019: One paper accepted by Human Factors
  • 4/2019: One paper accepted by WebSci 2019
  • 1/2019: One paper accepted by Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics
  • 1/2019: One paper accepted by Human Factors
  • 11/2018: One tutorial accepted by AAAI 2019
  • 10/2018: One paper accepted by Human Factors



Journal Papers

  1. Transfer of incompatible spatial mapping to the vertical Simon task generalizes across effectors but not stimulus features. [pdf]
    Zhong, Q., Proctor, R. W., Xiong, A., & Vu, K-PL. (2020).
    Attention, Perception, & Psychophyscis. 82, pp. 2570-2580.

  2. Stimulus-response and response-effect compatibility with touchless gestures and moving action effects. [pdf]
    Jancyzyk, M., Xiong, A., & Proctor, R. W. (2019).
    Human Factors. 61, pp. 1297-1314.

  3. Visual salience, not the graspable part of a pictured eating utnesil, grabs attention. [pdf]
    Xiong, A., Proctor, R. W., & Zelanik, H. N. (2019).
    Attention, Perception, & Psychophyscis. 81, pp. 1454-1463.

  4. Effects of embedding anti-phishing training within cybersecurity warnings. [pdf]
    Xiong, A., Proctor, R. W., Yang, W., & Li, N. (2019).
    Human Factors. 61, pp. 577-595.

  5. Human factors in privacy and security of the Internet of Things. [pdf]
    Chong, I., Xiong, A., & Proctor, R. W. (2019).
    Ergonomics in Design. 27, pp. 1-6

  6. Information processing: The language and analytical tools for cognitive psychology in the information age. [pdf]
    Xiong, A., & Proctor, R. W. (2018).
    Frontiers in Psychology. 9, Article 1270.

  7. Vertically arrayed stimuli and responses: transfer of incompatible spatial mapping to Simon task occurs regardless of response-device orientation. [pdf]
    Zhong, Q., Xiong, A., Vu, K-PL, & Proctor, R. W. (2018).
    Experimental Brain Research. 236, pp. 175-185.

  8. Is domain highlighting actually helpful in identifying phishing web pages?. [pdf]
    Xiong, A., Proctor, R. W., Yang, W., & Li, N. (2017).
    Human Factors. 59, pp. 640-660.

  9. The method of negative instruction: Herbert S. Langfeld's and Lugwig R. Geissler's 1910-1913 insightful studies. [pdf]
    Proctor, R. W. & Xiong, A.. (2017).
    American Journal of Psychology. 130, pp. 11-21.

  10. Decreasing auditory Simon effects across reaction time distributions. [pdf]
    Xiong, A. & Proctor, R. W. (2016).
    Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 42, pp. 23-38.

  11. Polarity correspondence as a general compatibility principle. [pdf]
    Proctor, R. W. & Xiong, A.. (2015).
    Current Directions in Psychological Science. 24, pp. 446-451.

  12. Referential coding of steering-wheel button presses in a simulated driving cockpit. [pdf]
    Xiong, A. & Proctor, R. W. (2015).
    Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied. 21, pp. 418-428.

Book or Book Chapters

  1. From small-scale experiments to big data: Challenges and opportunities for experimental psychologists. [doi]
    Proctor, R. W. & Xiong, A.(2020).
    In S. E. Woo, L. Tay, & R. W. Proctor (Eds.) Big data methods for psychological research: New horizons and challenges. (pp. 35-57). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

  2. Evolution of phishing attacks: Challenges and opportunities for humans to adapt to the ubiquitous connected world.
    Xiong, A., Proctor, R. W. & Li, N. (2019).
    In P. Hancock & M. Mouloua (Eds.) Human performance in automated and autonomous systems: Emerging issues and practical perspectives. (pp. 237-258). Boca Raton, FL.: CRC Press.

  3. The role of task space in action control: Evidence from research on instructions. [pdf]
    Xiong, A. & Proctor, R. W. (2018).
    In K. D. Federmeier (Ed.) The psychology of learning and motivation. Vol. 69, (pp. 325-364). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

  4. Experience, skill acquisition, and deliberate practice. [doi]
    Proctor, R. W. & Xiong, A.(2017).
    In D. Z. Hambrick, G. Campitelli, & B. N. Macnamara (Eds.) The science of expertise: Behavioral, neural, and genetic approaches to complex skill. (pp. 435-443). New York: Routledge.

Conference Proceedings

  1. All the wiser: Fake news intervention using user reading preference. [pdf]
    Lo, KC, Dai, SC, Xiong, A., Jiang, J., & Ku, LW. (2021).
    In Proceedings of the 14th ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining (WSDM), pp.1069-1072, 2021. Online.

  2. Towards effective differential privacy communication for users' data sharing decision and comprehension. [pdf]
    Xiong, A., Wang, T., Li, N., & Jha, S. (2020).
    In 2020 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (S&P), pp.392-410, 2020. Online.

  3. Beyond cognitive ability: Susceptibility to fake wews is also explained by associative inference. [pdf]
    Lee, S., Forrest, J. P., Strait, J., Seo, H., Lee, D., & Xiong, A. (2020).
    In Extended Abstract of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing System, (pp.1-8). New York: ACM.

  4. Trust it or not: Effects of machine-learning warnings in helping individuals mitigate misinformation. [pdf]
    Seo, H., Xiong, A., & Lee, D. (2019).
    In Proceedings of the 10th ACM Conference on Web Science, (pp.265-274). New York: ACM.

  5. Contribution of training in improving security warning compliance: Evidence from a field phishing experiment. [pdf]
    Yang, W., Xiong, A., Chen, J., Proctor, R. W., & Li, N. (2017).
    In Proceedings of the 4th Annual Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security, (pp.59-61). New York: ACM.

  6. An empirical study of mnemonic sentence-based password generation strategies. [pdf]
    Yang, W., Li, N. Chowdhury, O., Xiong, A., & Proctor, R. W. (2016).
    In Proceedings of the 23rd ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communication Security, (pp.1216-1229). New York: ACM.


  • IST504: Foundations of Theories and Methods of Information Sciences and Technology Research, Fall 2019
  • IST597: The Psychology of Deception, Spring 2019
  • IST110H/110S: Information, People, & Technology, Fall 2018 & Spring 2020